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The use of isotopic measurements in dendroclimatology also avoids the need for a standardisation process.The basic premise of isotope dendroclimatology is that since O and D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) variations in meteoric (atmospheric) waters are a function of temperature (see also section 3.3.2.1), tree growth which records such isotope variations should preserve a record of past temperature fluctuations (Epstein et al., 1976).Such variables include tree-ring width (the most commonly exploited information source, e.g.Briffa & Schweingruber, 1992), densitometric parameters (Schweingruber et al., 1978) and chemical or isotopic variables (e.g. A cross section of most temperate forest tree trunks will reveal an alternation of lighter and darker bands, each of which is usually continuous around the tree circumference.

This master chronology increases the (climate) signal to (non-climate) noise ratio (Fritts, 1971); 3) to build up a network of site chronologies for a region; 4) to identify statistical relationships between the chronology times series and the instrumental climate data for the recent period - the calibration period (Fritts, 1976); 5) to use these relationships to reconstruct climatic information from the earlier period covered by the tree-ring data, and; 6) finally, to test, or verify, the resulting reconstruction against independent data.Unfortunately, isotope fractionation effects within the tree, which are themselves temperature dependent, will create problems associated with this technique (Libby, 1972).QUALITY OAK FLOORING & DECKING PRODUCTS Flooring: produced from a high grade European Oak as a solid board or in engineered form for use with under floor heating. Other products: Skirtings, Architraves and Mouldings. All doors and windows are manufactured in our joinery division and can be produced on a bespoke basis.The fact that there exists a relationship between these extremely localised conditions and larger scale climatic parameters offers the potential for extracting some measure of the overall influence of climate on growth from year to year.Growth may be affected by many aspects of the microclimate: sunshine, precipitation, temperature, wind speed and humidity (Bradley, 1985; Fritts, 1976).

This master chronology increases the (climate) signal to (non-climate) noise ratio (Fritts, 1971); 3) to build up a network of site chronologies for a region; 4) to identify statistical relationships between the chronology times series and the instrumental climate data for the recent period - the calibration period (Fritts, 1976); 5) to use these relationships to reconstruct climatic information from the earlier period covered by the tree-ring data, and; 6) finally, to test, or verify, the resulting reconstruction against independent data.Unfortunately, isotope fractionation effects within the tree, which are themselves temperature dependent, will create problems associated with this technique (Libby, 1972).QUALITY OAK FLOORING & DECKING PRODUCTS Flooring: produced from a high grade European Oak as a solid board or in engineered form for use with under floor heating. Other products: Skirtings, Architraves and Mouldings. All doors and windows are manufactured in our joinery division and can be produced on a bespoke basis.The fact that there exists a relationship between these extremely localised conditions and larger scale climatic parameters offers the potential for extracting some measure of the overall influence of climate on growth from year to year.Growth may be affected by many aspects of the microclimate: sunshine, precipitation, temperature, wind speed and humidity (Bradley, 1985; Fritts, 1976).Whenever tree growth is limited directly or indirectly by some climate variable, and that limitation can be quantified and dated, dendroclimatology can be used to reconstruct some information about past environmental conditions.