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17-Jun-2017 15:36

The best that they can do is attempt to identify a string of sites existing principally in the 7th-6th centuries B. The biblical narrative suggests Israel fears the warlike Philistines upon exiting Egypt (Ex ) so they do not take "the way to the land of the Philistines" the northern track across the Sinai paralleling the Mediteranean Sea although this is the fastest way to Canaan. Archaeologists understand the Philistines did not settle in Canaan before circa 1175 B. in the days of Pharaoh Rameses III who defeated their attempted invasion of Egypt.

During the New Kingdom, some Egyptian scribes connected to the court had to be bilingual to deal with communiques that came to Pharaoh from the far reaches of the empire, like the Amarna letters, written in cuneiform. For him a particular group of Shasu (Bedouin) who lived in the Sinai and the Negev are the forebears of Israel. I have noted that when this figure is added to Solomon's 4th year (circa 966 B. On top of this figure, the duration of Joshua's leadership in Canaan and the length of Saul's kingship, which are not preserved, bring the total close to six hundred years." Canaan in Ramesside times does witness the sudden appearance of over 600 villages, hamlets and farms of stone on both sides the the Jordan River as portrayed in the Book of Joshua. Most archaeologists identify Israel's settlement in Canaan with the Iron Age I findings (circa 1200-1100 B. The Bible does suggest Israel leaves a location in Egypt called Rameses (Ex , ; Nu 33:3) and a "land of Rameses" (Ge ) and they identify this name with Pharaoh Rameses I (ca.

Similarly, the narrative of Israel's defeat of Sihon and the capture of his capital city of Heshbon would fit better the archaeological history of this site during the Iron II rather than the Late Bronze-Iron I period.

This does not mean that the present writer denies that there are older traditions behind the biblical narratives.

We have established that the account was written not earlier than the 7th/6th century B. because some of the sites mentioned did not come into existence until that time frame. He probably did not realize that some of these sites did not exist or were abandoned at the time he "thought" the Exodus occurred (1512/1446 B. It thus follows that even if one could satisfactorily identify a chain of sites or ruin heaps or tells in existence by 7th/6th century B. extending from Egypt across the Sinai to the Negev and Canaan these sites still would _not_ constitute the "real" route of the Exodus as it would have been most probably the way to the land of the Philistines following the shore of the Mediterranean Sea because there were no Philistines to oppose Israel's Exodus and entry into Canaan in 1512/1446/1260 B. Besides the fact that the Bible (Old and New Testaments) in various books suggests for some scholars different dates for the Exodus, the single most important impediment in establishing a date for the Exodus is Archaeologists' failure to find a period when _all_ the sites mentioned in the narratives were in existence at the same moment in time.

So, how "reliable" is this account if it was written roughly 1000 years after the date given in the Bible for the Exodus (Catholic: 1512 B. That is to say, no matter what archaeological timeframe one chooses to place the Exodus in be it Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age or Iron Age, _none_ of these time frames has _all_ the sites in existence and occupied at the same moment in time.

During the New Kingdom, some Egyptian scribes connected to the court had to be bilingual to deal with communiques that came to Pharaoh from the far reaches of the empire, like the Amarna letters, written in cuneiform. For him a particular group of Shasu (Bedouin) who lived in the Sinai and the Negev are the forebears of Israel. I have noted that when this figure is added to Solomon's 4th year (circa 966 B. On top of this figure, the duration of Joshua's leadership in Canaan and the length of Saul's kingship, which are not preserved, bring the total close to six hundred years." Canaan in Ramesside times does witness the sudden appearance of over 600 villages, hamlets and farms of stone on both sides the the Jordan River as portrayed in the Book of Joshua. Most archaeologists identify Israel's settlement in Canaan with the Iron Age I findings (circa 1200-1100 B. The Bible does suggest Israel leaves a location in Egypt called Rameses (Ex , ; Nu 33:3) and a "land of Rameses" (Ge ) and they identify this name with Pharaoh Rameses I (ca.Similarly, the narrative of Israel's defeat of Sihon and the capture of his capital city of Heshbon would fit better the archaeological history of this site during the Iron II rather than the Late Bronze-Iron I period.This does not mean that the present writer denies that there are older traditions behind the biblical narratives.We have established that the account was written not earlier than the 7th/6th century B. because some of the sites mentioned did not come into existence until that time frame. He probably did not realize that some of these sites did not exist or were abandoned at the time he "thought" the Exodus occurred (1512/1446 B. It thus follows that even if one could satisfactorily identify a chain of sites or ruin heaps or tells in existence by 7th/6th century B. extending from Egypt across the Sinai to the Negev and Canaan these sites still would _not_ constitute the "real" route of the Exodus as it would have been most probably the way to the land of the Philistines following the shore of the Mediterranean Sea because there were no Philistines to oppose Israel's Exodus and entry into Canaan in 1512/1446/1260 B. Besides the fact that the Bible (Old and New Testaments) in various books suggests for some scholars different dates for the Exodus, the single most important impediment in establishing a date for the Exodus is Archaeologists' failure to find a period when _all_ the sites mentioned in the narratives were in existence at the same moment in time.So, how "reliable" is this account if it was written roughly 1000 years after the date given in the Bible for the Exodus (Catholic: 1512 B. That is to say, no matter what archaeological timeframe one chooses to place the Exodus in be it Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age or Iron Age, _none_ of these time frames has _all_ the sites in existence and occupied at the same moment in time.So, even if one could establish a 7th-6th century B. itinerary for the Exodus it still would not be the "real" route, the real route was, paradoxically, "the way to the land of the Philistines" (Ex ):"Now when Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although it was nearer; for God said, "The people may have a change of heart when they see war, and return to Egypt.